ĪQĀN https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan <p><em>Bi-Annual Research Journal of Islamic Studies: ĪQĀN</em>, is a tri-lingual, Double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access publication by the Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University Faisalabad Campus, for the regularity of research production in Islamic Studies and to accelerate the skills of researcher with a devotion.</p> Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University, Faisalabad en-US ĪQĀN 2617-3336 Social Need and Importance of the Qur'anic Concept of Peace in Present Era https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/201 <p>According to Quranic teachings, there is no alternative to peace which is the real goal of Islam. Peace in social life is a state where all the routines of life are going on without any violence. The concept of peace is defined as a healthy, positive, and mutually civilized human relationship. Because of the growing terrorism in the world, it is the need of time to spread the message of peace all over the world, for which the teachings of the Qur’an can play a very important role in this regard. For this, the true teachings of the Qur’an and its correct interpretation must be communicated to all people so that no person/institution can mislead the people. Islamic teachings bear witness to the fact that Islam and Quranic teachings do not encourage terrorism and such incidents. The world has seen a wonderful demonstration of peace under the leadership of the Holy Prophet. This research article highlights that the concept of peace provided by the Qur’an is comprehensive, lasting and uniform, and useful for all humanity, and the same formula can be followed to bring about reform. This paper concludes that peace is possible just with the teachings of the Qur’an.</p> Dr. Tanveer Qasim Dr. Jamil Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 1 22 10.36755/iqan132.2021 Legal Effects of Need and Necessity in Commandments of Shari’ah: Study of Causes and Factors https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/279 <p><em>Islam is the religion of mercy, compassion, convenience, and laxity. Allah does not burden a person beyond his capacity. Ease is the basis of all the commandments of Shari’ah, which is enforced through many instances in the Quran and Sunnah. Hence scholars consider Need and Necessity as formula and secondary sources of Fiqh to save people from travail, difficulty, and trouble. Effects of The Need and The Necessity on the commandments of Shari’ah occupy a wide range. Even some of the commandments relating to faith and prayers also affect the commandments of Shari’ah and become a cause of its modifications. There is no doubt that the Need and the Necessity cannot be included in the basics for commandments of Shari’ah. Although its effectiveness in all versions of fiqh is positively proven. And the evidence of disintegration is present in the ancient and modern problems of fiqh. However the difference lies in textual scripts and their validity, so the concept of the Need and the Necessity is proved by Shariah commandments as exceptional in this condition. Whereas non-textual scripts prove their validity in the commandments of Shariah. The Holy Quran and the Holy Sunnah are evident of their basic principles, however, various religious scholars have described several effects of the Need and the Necessity, on the commandments of Shari’ah.</em></p> Muhammad Amir Hamza Dr. Yasir Arfat Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 23 40 10.36755/iqan232.2021 The Nature of Special Injunctions regarding Non-Muslims in Islam: An Analytical Study https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/308 <p><em>Islam has taught to maintain relations with non-Muslims and pay their dues despite differences of faith. But the Quran also instructs not to have relations with non-Muslims. There can be misunderstandings, so it should keep in mind the circumstances in which these verses were revealed. The concept of jihad in Islam has been distorted by the enemies of Islam. The Qur'an says that no one can force anyone to accept Islam, nor can we declare war on any country just to force him to convert to Islam. The Qur'anic injunctions in this regard are clear. Islam only commands non-alignment with those who abuse Muslims and try to eradicate them. Islam commands non-Muslims to be kind and compassionate towards Muslims in contrast to this attitude. Therefore, it is not correct to call the attitude of the Holy Qur'an towards opponents and enemies as a general attitude towards all non-Muslims, because the Holy Qur'an itself commands the treatment of neutral non-Muslims. This article reviews to keep an eye on the palace and the background of the verses in which it is commanded not to have relations with non-Muslims.</em></p> Dr. Munazza Hayat Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 41 56 10.36755/iqan332.2021 A Comparative Study of the Moral Values of Islam and Confucianism https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/309 <p>Ethics is one of the fundamental sources of a nation’s strength, just as immorality is one of the main causes of a nation’s decline. The most fundamental ethical values of Islam and Confucianism include humility, equality of mankind, patience and forbearance, selflessness, modesty, tolerance and forgiveness, righteousness, justice, generosity, moderation, contentment, promise-keeping, truthfulness, etc. The present research is carried out to explain and describe the difference between the moral values in Islam and Confucianism, This study is descriptive and analytical in nature. The data has been derived from the primary sources related to both religions’ perspectives. The key purpose of the teachings of Confucianism is, how to improve people's behaviors. Whereas Islam is a complete religion whose teachings and instructions are comprehensive, which are factual including all affairs by following which man can be thriving in this world and the hereafter. It is concluded that the ethical teachings of Confucianism are apparently similar to Islam, but there is a fundamental difference between Islam and Confucianism. The moral teachings in Confucianism are the result of human thoughts and notions. Whereas, all the teachings and rules in Islam depend on divine revelation reflect a connection between faith and action.</p> Umme Farwa Dr. Asia Rasheed Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 57 76 10.36755/iqan432.2021 Religion as a Factor in Spreading of Languages: Research Studies in the Context of Latin, Sanskrit and Arabic https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/310 <p>Expansion of a language is a continuous process. To understand the spread of a language. We have to travel from one region to another and from one era to another. We have to take care of even the smallest detail during this journey while traveling in the realm of time and space. Here’s nothing useless, futile, or absurd. Many precious ideas can be derived from the absurdities of cultural and so-called religious phenomena. In such a way, we can be able to understand the manners and methodology of the expansion of a language or some certain languages. In this article too, an attempt has been made to review how religion plays a vital role and has a far-reaching effect in the perspective of Latin, Sanskrit, and Arabic language through an interdisciplinary study such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, and history.</p> Fatima Bibi Dr. Shahida Yusuf Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 77 88 10.36755/iqan532.2021 Origination of Islamic Civilization from Non-Muslim Civilizations: Analytical Study https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/261 <p><em>When the moon of Islam was appeared on the horizon of Arabia, at the time there were Jews and Christians who had their own civilization. When Muhammad (PBUH) started the preaching of Islam, people started to embrace Islam and it is commonly understood that initially, Muslims started to follow Islamic worship while living in the ancient Arab civilization and culture. Then gradually Islam spread in remote areas of Arabs and Islamic civilizations used to color its own on the face of the society, but much of the culture was still based on famous Arab culture. As the series of Islamic victories started, Islam also dominated other civilizations. The point of debate is that when Islam dominates the civilizations of other areas, nations, or religions, Meanwhile, Islam borrowed many social customs and cultures from other civilizations. In this article, the main point of research and analysis will be discussed getting affected of Islamic civilization by other civilizations and It will be concluded that how to understand this discussion for civil harmony in the distant future.</em></p> Muhammad Umair Dr. Muhammad Khubaib Abubakar Siddique Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 89 108 10.36755/iqan632.2021 Influence of Western Economic Thoughts on Islamic Civilization: A Research Study https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/263 <p>In the contemporary world, Western civilization is emerging as the most dominating and influential civilization. It is also affecting other civilizations in several ways. One of the major reasons for its dominance is its financial strength and economic stability. Every economic agenda of the West has a particular purpose. For instance, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank are the products of Western civilization. They offer conditional financial support to the developing countries and thus weaken them financially. It is also included in the agenda of the West to access and occupy the mineral resources of Islamic countries. Contrary to this, Islam condemns exploitation and Islamic countries have no space for any such economic policy which may harm anyone. The growing tendency of international consumerism has also given rise to extravagance in Islamic societies. Similarly, the dominance of the materialistic West has also made the members of Islamic society materialistic in the sense that they no longer seem to be concerned with the financial conditions of their fellow Muslims. While Islam is a religion that makes its followers seek the welfare of each other. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the effects of Western civilization on Islamic civilization. This research is a humble attempt to delve into the issue and identify ways and means to restore the lost place of Islamic civilization in the modern world. The research paper follows content analysis.</p> Dr. Sadia Gulzar Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 109 126 10.36755/iqan732.2021 Religious Appropriation of Postmodernism: A Critical Appraisal of Westphal’s Intellectual Project https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/264 <p>This paper presents a critical appraisal of the project of Westphal. Westphal attempted to make a case for the religious appropriation of post-modernism. Using both the methods of logico-rational analysis and religious parameters, the paper shows that his project is not a viable project. It is argued that the logical status of post-modernist claims is not, as he says, that of meta-narratives but of ‘meta-meta narratives and thus they become entangled into a contradiction and cannot be seen to have the humble position Westphal wants them to have. We show the futility of the distinction made by Westphal between ‘what’ and ‘how.’ Finally, his hermeneutics of suspicion and that of infinitude are mutually inconsistent because he has attached the element of ‘unconsciousness’ with the former, while the latter completely ignores the Semitic idea of human deformity and only takes into account the sin of Adam. It is submitted that because of these shortcomings the religious appropriation project proposed by Westphal is not a feasible project. This is a significant area of research because the implications of postmodernism for religion have not been seriously examined in our culture and the focus of attention has been the field of literature.</p> Dr. Qaiser Shahzad Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 127 144 10.36755/iqan832.2021 Contemporary Intellectual Conflict and Modern Requirements for Da'wah and Strategies https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/316 <p>Islam as a last seal of revealed religions, it is obligatory in Islam for its followers to preach and spread the last and final message of Allah to the world. Globalization made it much easier to interact with different sects, ethnic groups, nations and religions; which results in a dire need to put more effort in spreading the message of Islam. &nbsp;&nbsp;Though it is a fact that besides the sincere efforts of different preaching groups of Islam the required results are still needed to be achieved. That’s why it is important to made reforms in the methods of preaching to face and counter the challenges of contemporary scenario. This article focuses on the responsibility of preacher and objectives of preaching so the preacher clearly understands the objectives behind the spreading of the message of Islam and exert his/her all abilities to fulfill the task. Because in recent times in order to convey the message of Islam the preacher have to face many challenges and problems. That is why the preaching should be given with wisdom, humility, sincerity, persistence and according to the environment. At the end this study focuses on the strategies of preaching so preacher understand the basic elements of preaching to attain the required result.</p> Dr. Faridah Yousuf Dr. Naseem Akthar Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 145 162 10.36755/iqan932.2021 The Method of the Holy Prophet in the Distribution of Lands and Estates: Discussions and Modern Applications from Books of Amwal https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/325 <p><em>This study aims at analyzing those instances and traditions of the holy prophet (PBUH) which have been narrated in these books written on financial matters and which are not found in other books. Also, this study will help to devise such policies in light of these financial traditions which will be an addition to the subject and feeble economies of the contemporary world. As well, this study will elaborate on how many narrations are there in the books of Amwal in the early centuries, from which jurisprudential rulings are derived, and how can the economic system be improved by applying them to contemporary states and financial affairs? Also reviewing the historical evolution of books of Amwal and determining their types and constitutional requirements, proving the Sirah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a source of legislation in financial laws and presenting the precedent from these books, as well as formulation and expansion of financial laws of modern Islamic states. Thus the main purpose of research is to find parables and arguments from the books of Amwal.</em></p> Hafiz Naeem Hafeez Dr. Ihsan Al-Rehman Ghauri Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-08-02 2021-08-02 3 02 163 188 10.36755/iqan1032.2021 Methodology of Quranic Stories in Character Building https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/312 <p class="abstract">This paper study the Story in Quran and its elements with specific focus on character building. The best source for man's guidance in the world has been the religious scriptures and indeed the greatest among them is the holy Quran. In the Quranic story you will taste the beauty because it enters in the human soul to transcend the ideas of noble holiness in the Qur’anic stories, The Qur'an used the method of the story to communicate and a tool to persuade people, The Qur'an used the method of the story to communicate and a tool to persuade people. The Qur’anic story format allows the soul to elevate ideas to noble holiness in the Qur’anic stories. The paper highlighted a detailed charter which the Quran has given in connection with each aspect of human personality as there is a verse or more in the Quran which guides a person for each and every conduct of his life. It is worth mentioning that the paper characterized by talking an integrated approach for the research. Results shows The Qur’anic story provides us with principles through which we should confront rumors and the Qur’an’s description of the ugliness of a phenomenon that harms human behavior. The research follows Analytical inductive research methods.</p> Dr. Muhammar Umar Idrees Dr. Irfan Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 1 14 10.36755/iqan1232.2021 Aesthetics of the Phonemic Structure in the Quran https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/313 <p class="abstract"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; line-height: 115%; font-style: normal;">Phonetics have utmost importance in linguistics especially in the study of the Quran because it addresses the human being in such a unique linguistically sound the perfect way that whoever reads or listens to the Book of Allah abruptly finds an exceptional harmonization, beauty, and relief that is never felt while reading some book written by the man. There is no doubt that the listeners are spell-bound by the phonetics and the aesthetic phonemics of the Quran and most of them (who have been elevated by the Guidance of Allah) would be not only convinced with the very message of the Quran and eventually converted to Islam also. As far as the research methodology is concerned, a descriptive method has been adopted for the said research paper as this method deems appropriate for such topics and analyzing them briefly from all possible aspects. This research paper has discussed the aesthetic phonemic structure of the Holy Quran, especially focusing on the verses related to Moses (PBUH) and some of the main findings can be summarized as follows: The aesthetic phonetic structure of the Quran does have a definite effect on every human and each word of Quran with its specific phonetic force attracts the speaker and listener at the same time. Therefore, it can be concluded that Quran being the word of Allah leaves a very well-synchronized impact on the human beings.</span></p> Dr. Lubna Farah Rahim Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 15 30 10.36755/iqan1332.2021 An Overview of the Teaching of Tafsir: Characteristics, Schools and Books in the Ottoman Era https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/199 <p>Ottoman period is the continuation and last experience of the civilization that continued jointly after the Prophet. They continued and developed the tradition of Madrasah inherited to them in the field of knowledge creation updating and education. In many fields of science in the Ottoman madrasah system, many commentaries were written as well as individual works. More importance has been given to the books which are the necessity of education. For example, more than 300 ??shiyah have been written about Celaleyns commentary. Over 120 ??shiyah had been written on al-Ke?âf. 360 commentaries were written. Explanations are not a repetition of knowledge but a student-centered work that is the material of education between the teacher and the student. There is a strong relationship between a book taught in madrasah and writing commentaries. Tafsir is the last science taught in the curriculum in Ottoman madrasahs. There are many reasons for this. It is the sum of sub-parameters such as tafsir science, fiqh, al-kalam, na?v and rhetoric which is an effort to understand the divine text. In other words? tafsir is the application of all tools and higher sciences to the Quran under the titles of the language of the Quran and the history of nuz?l. It is not permissible to interpret the Quran without knowing all other sciences.</p> Dr. Ibrahim Hakki Imamoglu Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 31 54 10.36755/iqan1432.2021 Aspects of Islamic Renewal in the Study of Religions: Descriptive Study https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/314 <p class="abstract"><span style="font-style: normal;">This research comes to talk about renewal in the field of science religions, through some examples and models, among the pioneers of the new generation of learners and researchers in our Islamic world and with an Islamic intellectual reference, who went beyond the usual stereotypes in the study of religions, and emotional enthusiasm, to present new topics with a new vision, with openness to the new studies and new sciences. The importance of this topic is evident in examining examples from these studies. Depending on the descriptive approach, and contenting itself with the inclusion of texts without analysis or correction, to try to answer the problem of renewal in the science of religion. The most important findings of the research are the etymology is indispensable in studying and controlling the true meaning of texts and religious expressions, and another discussion based on his religious text is a matter of great importance.</span></p> Ali Zalmat Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 55 68 10.36755/iqan1532.2021 Globalization, Media and Sirah Studies: An Aspiration to Develop Global Peace and Unity https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/265 <p>Global peace and Global unity are the utmost requirements of the Muslims residing in different geographical regions of the world in order to emerge as one unit in the global village. In other words, the absence of peace and unity among Muslims of the world would end in the annihilation of our true representation. The role of Globalization in the present era is quite eminent that highlights its ability to work as a catalyst in initiating, promoting, and strengthening Muslims across different Cultures as well as defining new horizons. This process is catalyzed by the eminent power of media that reaches out to almost every person and house in this world. The paper highlights the literature developments of the Islamic unity and peace in the light of teachings of Islam and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) along with the role of Globalization in relation to Muslims of the Ummah at large. The paper embraces the descriptive approach to highlight the ways to promote unity and peace along with the solutions to the problems of the Muslims on the whole and a hopeful message to the media of the world to change their operational strategies for Muslims and try to promote the true and healthy side of our religion that demands nothing but Global Peace and Unity. Moreover, different recommendations are given to speed up the process. </p> Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmad Gondal Shaheer Ahmed Yahya Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 1 18 10.36755/iqan1623.2021 Social Media and Religious Extremism: Analysis of Public Perception about Religious Ideologies https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/260 <p>Use of social media for dissemination of authentic or false ideologies about religion is one of the burning discussion topics among intellectuals. This study has tried to examine some basic aspects of religious extremism and, their relationship with the users of social media. The main objectives of the study were to explore the role of social media in boosting religious extremism and to find out the factors which act as catalyst for the religious extremism. In order to explore the various forms of religious extremism and to study the effects of religious extremism on society, Primary data was collected from 305 respondents. Survey questionnaire was used to collect the information from respondents. Results of the study proved that there is no relationship between the preaching through “Quran” and the education level of the respondents. Furthermore it was found that users of new media got influenced by the un-authenticated content, without having a deeper look into messages.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Muddser Muhammad Majid Hamid Nasir Dr. Imran Muslim Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 19 30 10.36755/iqan1723.2021 Islamic Perception of Anxiety: A Conceptual and Comparative Analysis with Psychology https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/315 <p>Anxiety is the most prevailing issue from the last decades. Many factors including emotional, genetics, personality, cognition and environmental lead towards anxiety and depression. With the rapid increase in stress and tension, there exist a corresponding need to highlight and discuss the coping and adaptive strategies of Islam to deal with the issue.&nbsp; The study sought to investigate the most common phenomena of the day, anxiety and its treatment and solutions in the perspective of Islam. In this study multiple strategies, therapies and methodologies are discussed which offered by Islam to overcome the problem. A person who suffer from anxiety, remains in stress, fear, anger, have negative thoughts and sometime severely attack to kill someone. Anxiety have impact on physical, mental, psychological, emotional and social aspects of life of anxious person.&nbsp;&nbsp; Symptom of anxiety depends upon the type and severity of disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual&nbsp;&nbsp; Disorders (DSM-IV) six types of anxiety disorders are identified and discussed.</p> Dr. Muhammad Tariq Mehmood Dr. Samina Kausar Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 31 38 10.36755/iqan1823.2021 Index of Tafasir of Surah Al-Fatihah Published in Urdu https://www.iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/311 <p><em>The Indo-Pak subcontinent has a privileged position to understand the Qur'an. Here many eminent scholars have made significant contributions to the interpretation of the Qur'an and have exposed some interpretive trends. From the time of the Companions till today, many scholars have rendered good services in understanding, translating, and translating the Holy Quran. In terms of words, history, principles, rules, and countless other aspects, the Qur'an presented by Muslim writers is incapable of providing a history of the world and exemplifying it. The Qur'an is the last scripture of guidance which Allah (SWT) has encompassed in all aspects of life with knowledge and meanings, has uncovered its facts and the search for mysteries and rules continues and is complete which is sufficient for progress and guidance. Is. Until the Day of Judgment, the wonders of the human race will never end and the scholars will never be satisfied with its knowledge, so you will find the Qur'an unique in every aspect. In different periods, with different intellectuals, scientific and research skills have spent their efforts in the field of interpreting the Qur'an. One of the miraculous aspects of the Qur'an is that it is in accordance with the needs and requirements of each age, so due to this inspiration, I try to emphasize specifically on Surah Fathia, Preface of The Holy Quran. I want to introduce some work, especially in the subcontinent on the Surah Fatiha in the form of a Bibliography only in the Urdu Language.</em></p> Muhammad Furqan Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 3 02 189 210 10.36755/iqan1132.2021